In the natural water cycle, "Groundwater" is the term used to describe any water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithological formations. As part of earth resources, the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater is "Hydrogeology" (Geohydrology/Groundwater hydrology). When a unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is saturated and can yield a usable quantity of water, it is known as an “Aquifer".

Groundwater is naturally and mainly recharged from surface (rainfall, stream, river), and  plays a significant role in the sustenance of the ecosystems as it discharges often at springs, seeps, oases or wetlands in depression, and maintain the base flow of rivers.

Groundwater is often withdrawn for drinking, agricultural, municipal, industrial and mining use through drilling, constructing and operating of abstraction wells. Thanks to advantages related to quality, availability, spread, vulnerability, durability, and processing (operating), groundwater has gained interests in many countries in recent decades.

To ensure sustainable development, utilisation and management of such a resource, different regulations and guide lines are put in place and are being developed by regulatory authorities in African countries as it is in practice throughout the world. 

GHES helps groundwater users in the resource development, and in regulatory complaining. GHES works with regulatory authorities in the advising and setting up and implementing of rules, and laws for the protection of the groundwater resources. Groundwater related services include: 


·         Aquifer mass transport characterization:

  1. Porosity test
  2. Tracer test

·         Foundation dewatering for construction

·         Groundwater quality assessment

·         Groundwater Modelling

·         Hydrogeochemistry assessments:

1.     Acid mine drainage assessment

2.     Hydrogeochemistry modelling

·         Drilling supervision

·         Aquifer testing supervision

·         Groundwater supply development for:

1.     Agricultural water needs

2.     Drinking and domestic needs

3.     Urban and Rural needs

4.     Industrial and Mineral processing needs

·         Mine related water services:

1.     Mine dewatering/depressurization

2.     Integrated mine's water monitoring system, and water resources protection

3.     Mine storm water management and storage

4.     Mine water quality and salt balance

  • ·         Desktop geohydrological studies

    ·         Hydrocensus

    ·         Geophysical survey for borehole siting:

    1.     Aerial photo and satellite imagery interpretations

    2.     Air borne Electromagnetic map interpretation

    3.     Ground Electromagnetic surveys and data interpretation

    4.     Surface penetration radar data interpretation

    5.     Surface Magnetic surveys and data interpretation

    6.     Resistivity surveys and data interpretation

    ·         Groundwater monitoring and management

    ·         Groundwater specialist investigations for environmental regulatory compliance and application:

    1.     Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

    2.     Environmental management Plan (EMP)

    3.     Water Use License Application (WULA)

    4.     Mine closure

    ·         Groundwater Recharge and Discharge (base flow) estimations

    ·         Characterization for aquifer parameters and boreholes sustainable yield:

    1.     Slug test and data interpretation

    2.     Pump test and data interpretation

    3.     Packer test and data interpretation

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